Friday, September 29, 2023
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# Understanding Non-Fractional Quantized Magnetic Charge in the Hall Effect

Understanding the non-fractional quantized magnetic charge in the Hall effect requires using the correct system of units. In a system of distributed charge units, the quantized magnetic charge remains quantum. These Quantum Measurement Units quantify two distinct manifestations of charges, rather than just one.

## Questioning Fractional Charge

It may have been necessary for physicists to reassess their understanding of physics when they arrived at the quantum magnetic flux constant referred to as (phi naught). According to the mainstream view, the apparent fractional behavior arises due to the complex interactions between electrons in a two-dimensional electron system under a strong magnetic field. The electrons form collective states known as fractional quantum Hall states, which exhibit fractional charges and fractional statistics. The term “fractional” is used to describe this unique and intriguing aspect of the Hall resistance quantization in these systems. A voltage V drives a current I in the positive x direction. A magnetic field in the positive z direction shifts positive charge carriers in the negative y direction. This generates a Hall potential (VH) and a Hall resistance (VH/ I ) in the y direction. (Kosmos 1986)

In regard to magnetic flux, the concept of “fractional charges” assumes that the electron’s electrostatic charge is the charge involved. However, according to the Aether Physics Model, there are two types of charge: electrostatic and magnetic. Therefore, the appropriate charge to apply to the electron in the case of magnetic flux is the magnetic charge.

## Quantifying Magnetic Charge

The magnetic charge is related to the electrostatic charge in the following way: When we convert into Quantum Measurement Units (QMU), the result is: The expression of the unit in terms of magnetic charge is: The electrostatic charge is a charge that exists in a spherical angle, while the magnetic charge exists in a steradian angle. The former is a one-spin charge, while the latter is a half-spin charge. The proportion between the two is determined by the electron fine structure constant. The two charge types significantly differ from each other and have reciprocal relationships.

## A Better Understanding of Quantized Magnetic Flux

The quantum magnetic flux of a half-spin particle can be written in QMU as . This value is arrived at by converting single-dimension, electrostatic charge to distributed-dimension, magnetic charge: For more information about converting SI and MKS units to QMU and also understanding QMU, visit the Units page at Secrets of the Aether. Visit this page for a quick introduction to key Aether Physics Model equations.

The magnetic charge is not “fractional.” Instead, it’s a distinct form of charge that directly carries the electron’s magnetic force. The magnetic flux constant, represented by , indicates the total number of half-spin electrons trapped in the magnetic field. 