# Aether Limits the Range of the Universe

The Aether is a fabric of discrete Aether units. The range of physical existence is therefore established through the Aether units of which all space and matter compose.

## The Speed of Photons is the Speed Limit of the Universe

The most commonly understood limit of the Aether is the speed of photons, which represents the only speed that photons can attain in open space. The speed limit also represents the range for which all physical matter can travel within the Aether fabric.

James Clerk Maxwell developed his electromagnetism equations from the inverse of the product of the permeability constant of space and the permittivity constant of space:

(1)

(see constants and units page for all unit values and dimensions on this page)

## The Maximum Mass and Magnetic Charge of the Universe

Other limits established by the Aether are the maximum mass and maximum magnetic charge which the Aether can contain.

The maximum mass of the Aether is factored from Newton’s gravitational constant as:

(2)

(3)

The maximum magnetic charge of the Aether is factored from Coulomb’s electrostatic constant as:

(4)

(5)

Note that is equal to the Aether unit ().

## The Minimum Length and Maximum Frequency of the Physical Universe

Factoring the mass of the electron and the speed of photons from Planck’s angular momentum constant for the electron, we can determine that the minimum (quantum) length of the Aether is equal to the Compton wavelength:

(6)

Factoring the Compton wavelength from the speed of photons we can determine the maximum (quantum) frequency of the Aether:

(7)

The quantum length and the quantum frequency determine limits for the smallest physical increments of space and physical matter. The small increments apply to physical changes. Even though one can mathematically imagine incremental changes to be of any length or frequency, the quantum length and quantum frequency establish the smallest magnitudes of the *physically spatial and temporal* characteristics of physical matter.

## The Maximum Length Density of the Physical Universe

Due to the maximum mass allowed by the Aether, and the smallest length allowed by the Aether, there is a specific range of length density allowed in the Aether, as well. The length density range is related to the speed of photons squared, just as are the limits of electromagnetism.

(8)

(9)

The gravitational force constant (G), which acts on mass throughout the physical Universe, is a limit of a maximum mass per length (length density). This maximum length density manifests with the phenomenon of black holes. A black hole is literally a wall where the physical Universe ends. The maximum length density expresses in the form of the Schwarzschild radius formula:

(10)

plugging in the maximum mass of the Aether and the quantum length:

(11)

which transposes to:

(12)

which is the same as:

(13)

## Neutrons are the Limiting Mechanism for the Length Density Limit

A physicist will notice that the factor “2” appears in the Schwarzschild radius formula, which indicates that the length density range applies exclusively to the mass of the *neutrons* in any given object. In objects of normal matter, such as our Sun and Earth, half the mass of normal matter objects is due to the presence of neutrons, and the other half of the mass is due to the total mass of electrons and protons.

The neutrons are bound electrons and protons where the space of the half spin electron folds over on top of the space of the half spin proton to form a single space of a half spin neutron. The neutron is therefore a condition of “pinched space.” The pinched space of the neutron causes the General Relativity effect of a curved path trajectory around massive objects.

### The Light Deflection around Massive Objects is Due to the Effect of Neutrons on Space

According to Albert Einstein’s General Relativity theory, the angle of deflection for light passing near the Sun is determined by a formula similar to the Schwarzschild radius formula where the Schwarzschild radius is calculated as:

(14)

According to the General Relativity math, is equal in geometry to and therefore the circular angle of deflection is then and so the Schwarzschild radius must be multiplied by 2:

(15)

where M is the mass of the Sun and is the radius of the Sun.